From JP 3-0 Chapter 1, para 5a. General. Whereas the term joint operations focuses on the integrated actions of the Armed Forces of the United States in a unified effort, the term unified action has a broader connotation. Unified action has its foundation in national strategic direction, which is governed by the Constitution, federal law, USG policy, international law, and our national interests. Unified action is a comprehensive approach that synchronizes, coordinates, and when appropriate, integrates military operations with the activities of other governmental and NGOs to achieve unity of effort. Enabled by unity of command, US joint forces have established effective mechanisms to achieve military unity of effort. The goal of unified action is to achieve a similar level of unity of effort with external partners, as Figure I-4
shows. This publication uses the term interorganizational partners to refer collectively to USG departments and agencies; state, territorial, local, and tribal agencies; foreign military forces and government agencies; nongovernmental agencies; and the private sector. This aligns with the term and definition of interorganizational coordination established in JP 3- 08, Interorganizational Coordination During Joint Operations.